### Author Topic: TT1-P1  (Read 1976 times)

#### Victor Ivrii ##### TT1-P1
« on: October 21, 2015, 08:47:17 PM »
Consider the first order equation:
\begin{equation}
(t^2+1)u_t +  u_x = u.
\label{eq-1-1}
\end{equation}

(a) Find the characteristic curves and sketch them in the $(x,t)$ plane.

(b)  Write the general solution.

(c) Solve  equation (\ref{eq-1-1})  with the initial condition $u(x,0)= \cos(x)$. Explain why the solution is fully  determined by the initial condition.

#### Xi Yue Wang

• Full Member
•   • Posts: 30
• Karma: 0 ##### Re: TT1-P1
« Reply #1 on: October 21, 2015, 11:35:38 PM »
For part a) b) I get,  $$\frac{dt}{t^2+1} = \frac{dx}{1}\\Let\ t = \tan{\theta}\\So\ \theta = \arctan{\ t}\\So\ 1 + t^2 = 1 + \tan^2{\theta} = \sec^2{\theta}\\and\ \frac{dt}{d\theta} = \sec^2{\theta}\\So\ \int \frac{1}{1+t^2} dt = \int \frac{sec^2{\theta}}{\sec^2{\theta}} d\theta\\= \int 1 d\theta\\= \theta\\= \arctan{t}\\For \int 1 dx = x\\ Hence\ x = \arctan{t}\\the\ characteristic\ curves\ are\ t = \tan{x}\\then\ we\ have\ c = x - \arctan{t}\\ u = \phi{(c)} = \phi{(x - \arctan{t})}$$

#### Bruce Wu ##### Re: TT1-P1
« Reply #2 on: October 21, 2015, 11:54:42 PM »
We have $$\frac{dt}{t^{2}+1}=\frac{dx}{1}=\frac{du}{u}$$
Xi Yue is right until the last line. Instead we need to proceed as follows: $$\frac{du}{u}=dx\Rightarrow \ln(u)=x+d\Rightarrow u=De^{x}=\phi(x-\arctan(t))e^{x}$$
So for part c): $$u(x,0)=\phi(x)e^x=\cos(x)\Rightarrow \phi(x)=\cos(x)e^{-x}$$ since $\arctan(0)=0$. Therefore, the solution to the IVP is:
$$u(x,t)=\cos(x-\arctan(t))e^{\arctan(t)-x}e^{x}=\cos(x-\arctan(t))e^{\arctan(t)}$$
The solution is fully determined because the original equation was first order in time, with no restrictions on x. Therefore one initial condition uniquely defines a solution.

#### Bruce Wu ##### Re: TT1-P1
« Reply #3 on: October 22, 2015, 01:06:07 AM »
One can look at the contour plot on this page http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=x-arctan%28t%29 to see the characteristic curves

#### Catch Cheng

• Jr. Member
•  • Posts: 12
• Karma: 0 ##### Re: TT1-P1
« Reply #4 on: October 22, 2015, 03:24:57 PM »
I think the characteristic curve is like this? As c is a random real constant.

#### Victor Ivrii ##### Re: TT1-P1
« Reply #5 on: November 01, 2015, 10:06:13 AM » 