Toronto Math Forum

MAT244--2019F => MAT244--Lectures & Home Assignments => Chapter 4 => Topic started by: jeyara85 on November 13, 2019, 10:42:22 PM

Title: 4.2
Post by: jeyara85 on November 13, 2019, 10:42:22 PM
I was wondering if we will be expected to find the characteristic equations of higher-order equations (3rd,4th, ..., nth), or will we be provided the characteristic equation in the exam.
Title: Re: 4.2
Post by: david on November 14, 2019, 04:09:16 PM
Finding the characteristic equation for higher order equations is very similar to the second order case.

If we have the differential equation $a_ny^{(n)} + a_{n-1}y^{(n-1)} .... + a_1y' + a_0y = 0$ then the characteristic equation is $a_nr^n + a_{n-1}r^{n-1} .... + a_1r + a_0 = 0$.

To find the roots, we can use the fact that the product of the roots must be  $a_0$ to help guess the roots.
Title: Re: 4.2
Post by: Victor Ivrii on November 15, 2019, 02:42:45 PM
Yes, because for equations given they could be found easily
Title: Re: 4.2
Post by: ZeCheng Wu on November 17, 2019, 10:25:51 PM
what if a(n) is not a constant, like x^2 for example
Title: Re: 4.2
Post by: david on November 18, 2019, 09:36:48 AM
If any of the $a_i$'s are not constant, then we cannot use the method above. Non-constant coefficient differential equations are generally harder to solve. We discussed a few methods in class such as reduction of order or using the Wronskian, but both methods require already knowing one solution.