I added tags to comment

(A): multiple errors: it should be $=\exp \bigl[\nu \bigr( \log|x+iy|+i\arg (x+iy)\bigr)\bigr]$. First factor $\nu$ is applied to everything second, we do not allow $(x+iy)$ to cross $(-\infty,0]$; so angle is defined uniquely and it rans from $-\pi$ to $\pi$.

Anyway: $[(x\pm i \varepsilon)^\nu]' =\nu (x\pm i \varepsilon)^{\nu-1}$ from complex variables and here $\nu$ could be even complex.

As $\varepsilon\to +0$, there is a limit in $\mathscr{D}'$ (even in $L^1_{loc}$) of $(x\pm i \varepsilon)^\nu$ provided $\Re\nu >-1$; but then there exists a limit of its derivative, i.e. $\nu (x\pm i \varepsilon)^{nu-1}$ and we can divide by $\nu\ne 0$. So we defined $(x\pm i \varepsilon)^{\nu}$ as long as $\Re \nu >-2$ and $\nu \ne -1$.

Repeating, we define $(x\pm i \varepsilon)^{\nu}$ as long as $\Re \nu >-3$ and $\nu \ne -1,-2$. ... and so on... as $\nu\ne -1,-2,\ldots$.

**Remark.** To mitigate the latter restriction, $f_\nu ^\pm :=\frac{(x\pm i0)^\nu}{\Gamma(\nu+1)}$ could be considered where $\Gamma$ is Euler's $\Gamma$-function; it has simple poles at $0,-1,-2,\ldots$ and $\Gamma(\nu+1)=\nu\Gamma(\nu)$.

(B), (C) are out of the window: they do not follow; also what is $x^{-\nu}$ for $x<0$ and $\nu\notin\mathbb{Z}$? What is $\delta^{\nu-1}$ for $\nu\ne 1,2,\ldots$? We can define those but a posteriori.

I suggested a simple way: look at $\log (x\pm i0)$ as $x>0$ and $x<0$; obviously $\log (x\pm i0)=\log|x|$ as $x>0$ and $\log (x\pm i0)=\log|x|\pm i\pi$ as $x<0$. In other words $\log (x\pm i0)=\log |x| \pm i\pi \theta(-x)$. Differentiating in $\mathscr{D}'$ we get

$$

(x\pm i0)^{-1}= (\log |x|)' +\pm i \pi (\theta (-x))'=x^{-1} \mp i\pi \delta(x)

$$

where (see other of bonus problems,

http://forum.math.toronto.edu/index.php?topic=1167.0) $(\log |x|)' =x^{-1}$ in vp sence, and

$(\theta (-x))'=-\delta(x)$.

PS Gelfand--Shilov 1--6 (+coauthors in higher volumes) is a truly remarkable book, but IMHO, sometimes they go too far. F.e. considering F.T. of distributions not in $\mathscr{S}'$ they get distributions over some classes of the entire analytic functions , in particular they get $\delta (x-c)$ with any $c\in \mathbb{C}$ (which is definitely a perversion). Unfortunately, G.Shilov died too young (at 58) and I never met him. I.Gelfand was a great mathematician.